Sample Models
Simulations for Use in Courses

Last update Sept. 13, 2013

Below are HTML &/or PDF formatted lab instructions for some thirty web-HUMAN laboratory exercises employed over the past 10 plus years in Skidmore College physiology courses. For more sample teaching simulations see Experiments from the HUMAN 80 "Student's Manual" by James E. Randal & Tom Coleman.

The courses (Mammalian Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Comparative Vertebrate Physiology and Medical Physiology and Mammalian Physiology Seminar Spring 2013) cover a wide swath of systems physiological territory including respiratory, renal, acid-base, cardiovascular, thermal and adaptive physiology and specific physiopathology topics such as nephrectomy, central vascular shunts, hypertension, fistulas, anemia, etc.. Some incorporate more fully the newer HUMAN 9 Patient section.

These may be used "as is" or serve to provide instructors/users with a starting point in creating their own simulation labs. Those listed as brief vignettes are indeed brief (1 page pdf's). These focus on screen snapshots of how to set up the experiment.

Sample Models -Simulations from courses
Some few below are for pre-HUMAN 9 versions (e.g. only 2 variable graphing, nosave/retrieve experiment ) but users can add HUMAN 9.0 features with ease and, of course, as they now have access to all of the newer additional features of HUMAN 9.

The following are 'lab' instructions for simulations conducted by students in various Skidmore College physiology courses.

A.] From Mammalian Physiology (1998-2008) or Medical Physiology (2010-2012) at Skidmore College ( 300 level junior/senior major's courses)

Respiratory physiology
1] Control of ventilation/ high altitude/ Emphysema

2] Acid - base physiology and calculation of lung diffusivity of O2

3] Acid - base physiology (PDF)

4] Four brief, targeted respiratory exercises & calculations

These save student set-up time by drawing from models already stored in the HUMAN database

Shunt calculation- Blood bypassing the alveoli < pdf >
Hypoventilation- Alveolar gas equation calculations of PO2 loss due to hypovent < pdf >
Fick cardiac output- calculated in 3 differing situations < pdf >
Edema- calculated based on the balance of the 4 classic Starling forces < pdf >
Four in one- shunt, hypovent, Fick CO & Edema in a single documnt < pdf >

5] Induced Anemia modified Sp 2012

5a] Induced anemia - analysis modified Sp 2012

Renal physiology
1] Basic quantitative renal calculations

1a] Introduction to renal salt load handling (PDF) Sp 2012

2] Nephrectomy (html formatted )

3] Teach Yourself Pressure Diuresis (pdf) modified Sp 2012 + sample student essays (pdf) modified Sp 2010

4] Regulation of ECF osmolarity and salt concentration- Brief Vignettes some modified Sp 2012

Renal response to drinking 1L H2O < pdf >
ADH response to decreased blood volume < pdf >
Thirst stimulation by hypovolemia < pdf >
Plasma osmolarity as regulated by ADH and thirst < pdf >
Temporarily unavaialable
Free water (osmolar) clearance < pdf >

5] Acid-Base Balance- Brief Vignettes modified Sp 2010

Primary metabolic acidosis < pdf >
Primary metabolic alkalosis < pdf >
Primary Respiratory acidosis < pdf >
Primary Respiratory alkalosis < pdf >
EC Volume depletion- effect on acid-base balance < pdf >

6] Aspects of Renal Potassium balance- Brief Vignettes Spring 2010

Pottasium regulation- normal intake < pdf >
Pottasium regulation- decreased intake < pdf >
Pottasium regulation- increased intake < pdf >
Role of low Aldosterone- "Addison's" disease < pdf >
Role of high Aldosterone- Primary aldosteronism < pdf >

7] Go to Click & run models stored in MedPhysio2012-> Renal Physiology2012 (sort for rmeyers) Sp 2012

A runing list of the renal database models in now accessible via the above pathway & will therefore are no longer be listed individually here


B.] From Cardiovascular Physiology 1999, 2002 & 2003 plus Mammalian 2013 (Skidmore College) ( 300 level junior/senior major's courses)

1] Hypertension - Renal induced 'Goldblatt' hypertension

2] Central Vascular Shunts 1 - a Right to Left Shunt

3] Central Vascular Shunts 2 - "locate the shunt" based on cardiac catheterization data

4] Anemia - hemodynamic, fluid balance, etc. consequences of progressive anemia

5] Hypertension of unknown origin - "diagnose" a case

6] Arterio-venous fistula - role of of vascular conductance in determining cardiac output

7] Pheochromocytoma - an adrenal medulla adrenergic tumor


C]. From Comparative Vertebrate Physiology 2001 - 2013 (Skidmore College) ( a 200 level sophomore major's course)

1] Body Temperature Regulation in Hot and Cold Environments (PDF)

2] Endurance exercise - cardiorespiratory limitations (PDF) Spring 2012

3] Cardiac and (vascular) smooth muscle comparison

4] Respiration- Ventilation-pCO2 response curves plus Dead Space Ventilation [ link ]

5] Respiratory Dead Space Determination [ link ] Fall 2013

6] Sweating as function of environmental temperature

7] Pike's Peak High Altitude Simulation [ link ] Spring 2012

D] From other courses

Diabetes Insipidus < pdf >

E] Items from Mammalian Physiology Spring 2013 are being added to the framework below on an ongoing basis

From (and for the use of the students of) Mammalian Physiology Seminar Spring 2013 ( this is a special edition of Mammalian Physiology that examines the comparative physiological roots of selected medical physiology topics ). For simulation labs in the standard Mammalian & Medical physiology courses, see item A.] above.
A warning - this section is in the process of being transfered, model by model, to this site. Links are activated only after each model is re-tested.

Topic: Transitional vetebrate circulations & human congenital central vascular birth defects
- A] inducing & studying the effects of central vascular shunts in HUMAN - A right to left shunt
[ link ]

- B] diagnosing the location of the shunting mechanism in HUMAN

[ link ]
- B1] Tools- practice with Fick cardiac output calculations
[ link ]

- B2] Tools- a sample analysis of the shunt location problem

[ link ]

- C] A Congenital shunt case in HUMAN

[ link ]
Topic: Evolution of vertebrate pulmonary circulations & the problem of pulmonary edema
- A] induction of systemic edema in HUMAN as a tool to study forces involved in fluid movement
[ link ]
- B] induction of pulmonary edema in HUMAN
[ link ]
Topic: The high O2 use vertebrate life style and heart failure as the inability to meet it
- A] The basic venous pressure / Starling cardiac output framework from within HUMAN
[ link ]
- B] The effects of altering key physiological variables within the venous pressure / Starling cardiac output framework
[ link ]
- C] Heart failure - combined R & L HF
[ link ]
- D] Heart failure - high output failure
[ link ]
- E] Heart failure - A-V fistula induction and circulatory shock
[ link ]
- F] Heart failure - A case of heart failure in HUMAN
[ link ]
Topic: The exams - each was a clinical case  
- A] Case - Pulmonary Edema
[ link ]
- A] Case - Progressive Heart failure
[ link ]